She explains that while a "get tough on crime" outlook dominates the movement, the concept of secondary victimization has been invoked by activists across the political spectrum, including anti-death penalty advocates, who contend that the families of death-row inmates are also secondary victims of violent crime and the criminal justice system. Read more Read less. Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions.
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Review " Second Wounds is a nuanced study of how victims' rights have become important factors not only in criminal justice cases but also in how crime is covered by journalists and understood as a social phenomenon. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review.
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Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Immediate crisis intervention is needed. Trained crisis intervenors should inquire about the victim's welfare by asking if they feel safe, assuring victims that they are safe if that is true, and determining if they are in need of medical attention.
Victims will often blame themselves for the crime. The crisis intervenor needs to assure the victim that they were not at fault. If these initial and crucial steps are missing, the trauma can have long-term effects on the healing and recovery process. After experiencing the initial traumatic reactions to victimization, victims will most likely undertake the task of rebuilding their equilibrium. Their lives will never be the same, but they begin to regain some form of control and a sense of confidence. Every victim's experience is different, and the recovery process can be extremely difficult.
It can take a few months or years -- or an entire lifetime -- depending upon the variables involved. For instance, if an individual has suffered from other traumatic incidents prior to the victimization -- such as the death of a close relative or friend -- his or her initial emotional reaction, reorganization and recovery might be different from someone who is experiencing victimization for the first time.
The road to recovery is very similar to a roller-coaster with unexpected "ups and downs. If victims have difficulty rebuilding or finding a new equilibrium, they may suffer from a long-term crisis reaction or from posttraumatic stress disorder. Victims never completely forget about the crime. The pain may lessen and even subside, but their lives are changed forever. Victims who suffer from long-term crisis reactions can be thrown back into the initial crisis reaction by what are known as "triggers.
Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD was first applied to military veterans who experienced psychological trauma while serving in combat.
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Researchers are now applying this syndrome to crime victims. Being a victim of crime does not necessarily mean that an individual will develop PTSD. If victims receive appropriate crisis intervention, the chances of developing PTSD are reduced. Some recognizable symptoms of PTSD are:. PTSD is a very complicated diagnosis and the presence of any of the above-mentioned symptoms does not mean that a person is suffering from PTSD. This bulletin does not provide the proper forum for a complete review.
Victims not only have to struggle with primary injuries in the aftermath of the crime, but they must also battle with the "secondary" injuries. Secondary injuries are injuries that occur when there is a lack of proper support. These injuries can be caused by friends, family and most often by the professionals victims encounter as a result of the crime. Law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, social service workers, the media, coroners, clergy, and even mental health professionals can cause secondary injuries.
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Those individuals may lack the ability or training to provide the necessary comfort and assistance to the victim. Often, those individuals blame the victim for the crime. Failing to recognize the importance of the crime or to show sympathy can be damaging to the victim's self-worth and recovery process. Perhaps the most agonizing experience for victims involves dealing with the criminal justice system if and when an offender is apprehended. At this level, the crime is considered to have been committed against the state, and victims become witnesses to the crimes.
This procedure is very difficult for the crime victim to understand and come to terms with, because in the victim's mind, he or she is the one who has suffered emotionally, physically, psychologically and financially. At this stage of the process, a victim can sometimes feel that he or she is losing complete control because he or she is not directly involved in the prosecution or sentencing of the offender. However, participation in the criminal justice system can aid victims in rebuilding their lives.
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If victims are kept well-informed about the criminal proceedings and feel that they have a voice in the process, they will feel that they are a part of a team effort. This added effort enables victims to understand the judicial process and helps to return to them a sense of control to their lives and circumstances.
In order to have a better understanding of the aftermath of criminal victimization, we must begin to accept the reality that crime is random, senseless and can happen to anyone regardless of the precautions that are taken to prevent being victimized.
We must also understand that a victim's life is turned upside down when he or she becomes a victim of crime.
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